TOP 10 Computer Science & Information Technology Research Articles

TOP 10 Cited Computer Science & Information Technology Research Articles From 2017 Issue

   International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology (IJCSIT)

INSPEC Indexed

ISSN: 0975-3826(online); 0975-4660 (Print)

 Citation Count – 5

An Integrated System Framework For Predicting Students’ Academic Performance In Higher Educational Institutions

Olugbenga Adejo and Thomas Connolly

School of Engineering and Computing, University of the West of Scotland,  Paisley, United Kingdom


Accurate prediction and early identification of student at-risk of attrition are of high concern for higher educational institutions (HEIs). It is of a great importance not only to the students but also to the educational administrators and the institutions in the areas of improving academic quality and efficient utilisation of the available resources for effective intervention. However, despite the different frameworks and various models that  researchers have used across institutions for predicting performance, only negligible success has been recorded in terms of accuracy, efficiency and reduction of student attrition. This has been attributed to the inadequate and selective use of variables for the predictive models. This paper presents a multi-dimensional and an integrated system framework that involves considerable learners’ input and engagement in predicting their academic performance and intervention in HEIs. The purpose and functionality of the framework are to produce a comprehensive, unbiased and efficient way of predicting student performance that its implementation is based upon multi-sources data and database system. It makes use of student demographic and learning management system (LMS) data from the institutional databases as well as the student psychosocial-personality (SPP) data from the survey collected from the student to predict performance. The proposed approach will be robust, generalizable, and possibly give a prediction at a higher level of accuracy that educational administrators can rely on for providing timely intervention to students


Prediction, Student performance, Higher education, integrated system, framework.

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[1] Braunstein, Andrew W., Mary Lesser, & Donn R. Pescatrice (2006) “The business of freshmen student retention: Financial, institutional, and external factors.” The Journal of Business and Economic Studies Vol.12, No. 2, pp.33.

[2] HESA (2014). ndicators/non-continuation.

[3] Yadav, S.K., Bharadwaj, B. K. & Pal, S. (2012). “Mining Educational Data to Predict Student’s Retention :A Comparative Study”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), Vol.10, No.2

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[14] Oladokun, V. O., Adebanjo, A. T. & Charles-Owaba, O. E. (2008). “Predicting students’ academic performance using artificial neural network: A case study of an engineering course”. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.9, No.1, pp.72-79.

[15] Hoe, A.C.K., Ahmad, M.S., Hooi, T.C., Shanmugam, M., Gunasekaran, S.S., Cob, Z.C.& Ramasamy, A., (2013) “Analyzing students records to identify patterns of students’ performance”. In Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS), 2013 International Conference on (pp. 544-547). IEEE

[16] Ikbal, S., Tamhane, A., Sengupta, B., Chetlur, M., Ghosh, S. & Appleton, J. (2015). “On early prediction of risks in academic performance for students. IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol.59, No.6, pp.5-1.

[17] Minaei-Bidgoli, B., Kashy, D.A., Kortemeyer, G. & Punch, W., (2003). “Predicting student performance: an application of data mining methods with an educational web-based system”. In Frontiers in education, 2003. FIE 2003 33rd annual (Vol. 1, pp. T2A-13). IEEE

[18] Romero, C., López, M.I., Luna, J.M. & Ventura, S., (2013). “Predicting students’ final performance from participation in on-line discussion forums”.Computers & Education, Vol.68, pp.458-472

[19] Agudo-Peregrina A.F., Iglesias-Pradas S., Conde-Gonzalez M.A., and Hernandez-Garcia A. (2014). “Can we predict success from log data in VLEs? Classification of interactions for learning analytics and their relation with performance in VLE-supported F2F and online learning” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.31, No.1, pp. 542-550.

[20] Cerezoa, R., Sánchez-Santillánb, M., Paule-Ruizb,M.P., & Núñeza J. (2016). “Students’ LMS interaction patterns and their relationship with achievement: A case study in higher education”, Computer and Education Vol. 96, May 2016, pp. 42–54

[21] Sembiring, S., Zarlis, M., Hartama, D., Ramliana, S., & Wani, E.(2011). Prediction of student academic performance by an application of data mining techniques. In International Conference on Management and Artificial Intelligence IPEDR, Vol.6, pp.110-114.

[22] Fariba, T.B. (2013). “Academic performance of virtual students based on their personality traits, learning styles and psychological well-being: A prediction”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.84, pp.112-116.

[23] Gray, Geraldine, Colm Mcguinness, and Philip Owende. (2016) “Non-Cognitive Factors of Learning as Early Indicators of Students-at-Risk of Failing in Tertiary Education.” In Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment, pp. 199-237. SensePublishers.

[24] Sarker, Farhana, Thanassis Tiropanis, and Hugh C. Davis.( 2013) “Exploring student predictive model that relies on institutional databases and open data instead of traditional questionnaires.” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 413-418. ACM.

[25] Romero, C., Romero, J.R., Luna, J.M. and Ventura, S., (2010). “Mining rare association rules from elearning data”. In Educational Data Mining 2010

[26] Rubiano, S.M.M. and Garcia, J.A.D., (2015). “Formulation of a predictive model for academic performance based on students’ academic and demographic data”. In Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2015. 32614 2015. IEEE (pp. 1-7). IEEE

[27] Rusli, N.M., Ibrahim, Z. and Janor, R.M., (2008). “Predicting students’ academic achievement: Comparison between logistic regression, artificial neural network, and Neuro-fuzzy”. In Information Technology, 2008. ITSim 2008. International Symposium on (Vol. 1, pp.1-6). IEEE.

   Citation Count – 5

Data Warehouse And Big Data Integration

Sonia Ordoñez Salinas and Alba Consuelo Nieto Lemus

Faculty of Engineering, Distrial F.J.C University, Bogotá, Colombia


Big Data triggered furthered an influx of research and prospective on concepts and processes pertaining previously to the Data Warehouse field. Some conclude that Data Warehouse as such will disappear; others present Big Data as the natural Data Warehouse evolution (perhaps without identifying a clear division between the two); and finally, some others pose a future of convergence, partially exploring the possible integration of both. In this paper, we revise the underlying technological features of Big Data and Data Warehouse, highlighting their differences and areas of convergence. Even when some differences exist, both technologies could (and should) be integrated because they both aim at the same purpose: data exploration and decision making support. We explore some convergence strategies, based on the common elements in both technologies. We present a revision of the state-of-the-art in integration proposals from the point of view of the purpose, methodology, architecture and underlying technology, highlighting the common elements that support both technologies that may serve as a starting point for full integration and we propose a proposal of integration between the two technologies.


Big Data, Data Warehouse, Integration, Hadoop, NoSql, MapReduce, 7V’s, 3C’s, M&G

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 Citation Count – 03

Raspberry Pi And Arduino Uno Working Together As A Basic Meteorological Station

José Rafael Cortés León 1, Ricardo Francisco Martínez-González Anilú Miranda Medinay 3 and Luis Alberto Peralta-Pelaez3

1,2Department of Electric-Electronic Engineering, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz (TecNM), Veracruz, Mexico

3Department of Chemistry-Biochemistry Engineering, Instituto Tecnologico deVeracruz (TecNM), Veracruz, Mexico


The present paper describes a novel Raspberry Pi and Arduino UNO architecture used as a meteorological station. One of the advantages of the proposed architecture is the huge quantity of sensors developed for its usage; practically one can find them for any application, and weather sensing is not an exception. The principle followed is to configure Raspberry as a collector for measures obtained from Arduino, transmitting occurs via USB; meanwhile, Raspberry broadcasts them via a web page. For such activity is possible thanks to Raspbian, a Linux-based operating system. It has a lot of libraries and resources available, among them Apache Web Server, that gives the possibility to host a web-page. On it, the user can observe temperature, humidity, solar radiance, and wind speed and direction. Information on the web-page is refreshed each five minute; however, measurements arrive at Raspberry every ten seconds. This low refreshment rate was determined because weather variables normally do not abruptly change. As an additional feature, system stores all information on the log file, this gives the possibility for future analysis and processing.


Raspberry Pi, Arduino UNO, Meteorological station, Novel architecture.

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[17] Cadenas, Erasmo; Rivera, Wilfrido. Wind speed forecasting in three different regions of Mexico, using a hybrid ARIMA–ANN model. Renewable Energy, 2010, vol. 35, no 12, p. 2732-2738.

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  Citation Count – 3

Residual Quotient And Annihilator Of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets Of Ring And Module

P.K. Sharma1 and Gagandeep Kaur2

1P.G. Department of Mathematics, D.A.V. College, Jalandhar City, Punjab, India

2Research Scholar, IKG PT University, Jalandhar , Punjab


In this paper, we introduce the concept of residual quotient of intuitionistic fuzzy subsets of ring and module and then define the notion of residual quotient intuitionistic fuzzy submodules , residual quotient intuitionistic fuzzy ideals. We study many properties of residual quotient relating to union, intersection, sum of intuitionistic fuzzy sub modules (ideals). Using the concept of residual quotient, we investigate some important characterization of intuitionistic fuzzy annihilator of subsets of ring and module. We also study intuitionistic fuzzy prime sub modules with the help of intuitionistic fuzzy annihilators. Many related properties are defined and discussed.


Intuitionistic fuzzy (prime) sub module (ideal), residual quotient intuitionistic fuzzy sub modules (ideal), intuitionistic fuzzy annihilator, semi prime ring.

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[8] K. Hur, H.K. Kang and H.K. Song, (2003), Intuitionistic fuzzy subgroup and subrings, Honam Math J. Vol. 25, No. 1, pp 19-41.

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[15] H.K. Saikia and M.C. Kalita, (2009) , On Annihilator of fuzzy subsets of modules, Internal Journal of Algebra Vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 483- 488.

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Citation Count – 3

A Meliorated Kashida-Based Approach For Arabic Text Steganography

Ala’a M. Alhusban and Jehad Q. Odeh Alnihoud

Computer Science Dept, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan


Steganography is an art of hiding a secret message within some cover media such as: images, audios, videos, and texts. Many algorithms have been proposed for Arabic text steganography exploiting some features of Arabic language such as: diacritics, extension character (kashida), and pointed letters. In this research we propose a new method to enhance a kashida-based methods for text steganography. In which each existing kashida can hide two bits instead of only one bit. In addition, security measures is increased through embedding the secret bits into the cover text by two different ways since the cover text is divided into two blocks; each one of them is being treated in different way. Moreover, the original kashida in the cover text is ignored by the extractor. A system is designed to achieve the embedding as well as the extracting with high degree of security through authentication operation used in its interface. The proposed approach is tested and compared with the most related kashida-based approaches in terms of capacity and the results are promising. Furthermore, it overcomes the limitations of other approaches, maintain a reasonable increases in the files size, and enhances security measures.


Arabic text, Steganography, Kashida, Pointed characters, Zero-width character.

For More Details :

Volume Link:


[1] G. Kipper, (2003) Invistigator’s Guide to Steganography, Auerbach Publications, ISBN 9780849324338, October 27.

[2] Gutub, A. and M. M. Fattani, (2007) A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method Using Letter Points and Extensions“, International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering Vol: 1, No: 3.

[3] M. S. Shahreza and M. H. Shahreza, (2008) “An Improved Version of Persian/Arabic Text Steganography Using “La” Word”, Proceedings of IEEE 2008 6th National Conference on Telecommunication Technologies and IEEE 2008 2nd Malaysian conference on Photonics, 26-27 August, Putrajaya, Malaysia, pp: 372-376.

[4] A. Al-Nazer, A. Gutub, (2009) “Exploit Kashida Adding to Arabic E-Text for High Capacity Steganography”, Proceedings of Third IEEE International Conference on Network and System Security, Pages: 447-451. DOI: 10.1109/NSS.2009.21.

[5] F. Al-Haidari, A. Gutub, K. Al-Kahsah, and J. Hamodi, (2009) “Improving Security and Capacity for Arabic Text Steganography Using ‘Kashida’ Extensions”, Proceedings of IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications.pp: 396-399.DOI: 10.1109/AICCSA.2009.5069355

[6] A. Gutub, F. Al-Haidari, K. Al-Kahsah, and J. Hamodi, (2010) “E-Text Watermarking: Utilizing ‘Kashida’ Extensions in Arabic Language Electronic Writing“, Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages: 48-55. DOI: 10.4304/jetwi.2.1.48-55.

[7] A. Gutub, W. Al-Alwani, and A. Bin Mahfoodh, (2010) “Improved Method of Arabic Text Steganography Using the Extension ‘Kashida’ Character“, Bahria University Journal of Information & Communication Technology Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: 68-72.

[8] A. Odeh and K. Elleithy, (2012) “Steganography in Arabic Text Using Zero Width and Kashidha Letters“, International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT), Vol. 4, Pages: 1-11. DOI: 10.5121/ijcsit.2012.4301.

[9] Y. M. Alginahi, M. N. Kabir and O. Tayan, (2013) “An Enhanced Kashida-Based Watermarking Approach for Increased Protection in Arabic Text-Documents“, Proceedings of International Conference on Electronics, Computer and Computation (ICECCO). DOI: 10.1109/ICECCO.2013.6718288

[10] A. Odeh, K. Elleithy and M. Faezipour, (2013) “Steganography in Arabic Text Using Kashida Variation Algorithm (KVA)”, Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT). DOI: 10.1109/LISAT.2013.6578239.

[11] Mersal, S., Alhazmi S., R. Alamoudi and N. Almuzaini, (2014) “Arabic Text Steganography in Smartphone“, International Journal of Computer and Information Technology (ISSN: 2279 – 0764), Vol. 03, No. 02, pp. 441-445. International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 9, No 2, April 2017 112

[12]Y. Alginahi, M. Kabir and O. Tayan, (2014) “An Enhanced Kashida-Based Watermarking Approach for Increased Protection in Arabic Text- Documents Based on Frequency Recurrence of Characters, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol.6, No. 5. DOI: 10.177706/ijcee.2014.v6.857.

[13] B. Osman, R. Din and M. R. Idrus, (2015) “Capacity Performance of Steganography Method in Text Based Domain“, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No.3.

[14] R. Saluja, K. Kanwal and S. Dahyia, (2014) “Review on Steganography for Hiding Data”, International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing, Vol.3 No. 4, pp: 225-229. ISSN 2320–088X.

[15] R. Jabri and B. Ibrahim, (2016) “Capacity Improved Arabic Text Steganography Technique Utilizing ‘Kashida’ with Whitespaces“, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Mathematical Sciences and Computer Engineering (ICMSCE2016), pp: 38-44, Langkawi, Malaysia.

                                                    Citation Count – 3

Image Encryption Techniques Using Fractal Function: A Review

Shafali Agarwal

1Department of Computer Applications, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida, India


An increasing demand of secure data transmission over internet leads to the challenge of implementing a consistent cryptosystem. In 2004, USA navy published the patent which highlights the importance of fractal as an encryption/decryption key in a cryptosystem [1]. Fractal possess butterfly effect i.e. sensitivity to initial condition, due to which small change in input produces a major change in output. This paper summarizes the various recent image encryption techniques in which fractal key is used to encrypt/decrypt followed by substitution, scrambling and diffusion techniques to provide strong cryptosystem. The algorithms covered both private key encryption as well as public key encryption technique in the paper. The analysed algorithms include a set of fractal function such as Mandelbrot set, Julia set, Hilbert curve, 3D fractal, multi-fractal, IFS and chaotic function to generate a complex key used in the encryption process. Corresponding performance of each algorithm is analysed by PSNR test, key space, sensitivity analysis and correlation coefficient value between the adjacent pixels of both images (Original image and encrypted image) which shows significant improvement in performance over the traditional encryption methods.


Image Encryption, fractal, chaotic function, Scrambling, NIST test suite

For More Details :

Volume Link:


[1] Huntress G. B., 2004“Encryption using Fractal Key”, United States Patent 6782101.

[2] Khan M. & Shah T., 2014“A Literature Review on Image Encryption Techniques”, © 3D Research Centre Kwangwoon University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 5(4), DOI 10.1007/s13319- 014-0029-0, Page 1.

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[4] Sun Y, Chen L, Xu R, Kong R, 2014“An Image Encryption Algorithm Utilizing Julia Sets and Hilbert Curves”. PLoS ONE, 9(1): e84655. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084655

.[5] Zhang Q., Zhou S. and Wei X.,2011 “An Efficient Approach for DNA Fractal-based Image Encryption”, Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, 5(3), pp 445-459.

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[23] Sun YY, Xu R., Chen L., Hu X., 2014 “Image Compression and Encryption Scheme Using Fractal Dictionary and Julia Set”, IET Image Processing, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, pp. 173–183 doi:10.1049/ietipr.2014.0224

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[32] Hala B. Wahab A., Sarab S. A., 2013 “Modify Symmetric Block Cipher Algorithm Using Generated Digital 3D Fractal Image”, Iraqi Journal of Science, Vol 54, No.4, pp: 955-964.

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[36] Feasibility Study on Random Number Generators for Symmetric Key Cryptography, Chapter 6, pp 156-204.

[37] Ali M. Meligy, HossamDiab, Marwa S. El-Danaf,2016“Chaos Encryption Algorithm using Key Generation from Biometric Images”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 149 – No.11.

[38] Wang W., Tan H., Pang Y., Li Z., Ran P. and Wu J.,2016 “A Novel Encryption Algorithm Based on DWT and Multichaos Mapping”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Sensors Volume Article ID 2646205, 7 pages,

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Citation Count – 2

Usability Testing Of Fitness Mobile Application: Case Study Aded Surat App

 Ryan Alturki and Valerie Gay

School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney City, Australia


Obesity is a major health problem around the world. Saudi Arabia is a nation where obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. Mobile apps could help obese individuals but they need to be usable and personalized to be adopted by those users. This paper aims at testing the usability of a fitness mobile app” Aded Surat”, an app in Arabic language. This paper presents an extensive literature review on the attributes that improve the usability of fitness apps. Then, it explains our methodology and our set up of a trial to test the usability of Aded Surat app that is popular in Saudi Arabia. The usability attributes tested are effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, memorability, errors, learnability and cognitive load. The trial is done in collaboration with participants from the Armed Forces Hospitals – Taif Region in Saudi Arabia. The results highlight that the app failed to meet with the usability attributes.


Usability, Mobile Application, Obesity, User Experience

For More Details :

Volume Link:


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Citation Count – 2

Syntax And Semantics For Cinnamon Programming

Kostadin Kratchanov

Department of Software Engineering, Yaşar University, Izmir, Turkey


Cinnamons are a new computation model intended to form a theoretical foundation for Control Network Programming (CNP). CNP has established itself as a programming approach combining declarative and imperative features. It supports powerful tools for control of the computation process; in particular, these tools allow easy, intuitive, visual development of heuristic, nondeterministic, or randomized solutions. The paper providesrigorous definitions of the syntax and semantics of the new model of computation, at the same time trying to keep the intuition behind clear. The purposely simplified theoretical model is then compared to both WHILE-programs (thus demonstrating its Turing completeness), and the “real” CNP. Finally, future research possibilities are mentioned that would eventually extend the cinnamon programming and its theoretical foundation into the directions of nondeterminism, randomness and fuzziness.


Control network programming, CNP, Programming languages, Programming paradigms, Computation models, While programs, Theoretical computer science, Recursive automata, Non-determinism, Semantics.

For More Details :

Volume Link:


[1] K. Kratchanov (2017), Cinnamons: A Computational Model Underlying Control Network Programming. In: Computer Science and Information Technology, v. 73, 7th Intl Conf. on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA 2017), Copenhagen, Denmark (N. Meghanathan & D. Wyld – eds.), AIRCC Publ. Co., pp. 1-20. (

[2] K. Kratchanov, E.Golemanova and T. Golemanov (2008),“Control Network Programming Illustrated: Solving Problems With Inherent Graph-Like Structure”, In: Proc. 7th IEEE/ACIS Int. Conf. on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2008), May 2008, Portland, Oregon, USA, 453-459.

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Citation Count – 2

A Systematic Mapping Study On Current Research Topics In Smart Contracts

Maher Alharby1,2 and Aad van Moorsel1

1School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK 

2College of Computer Science and Engineering, Taibah University, Medina, KSA


An appealing feature of blockchain technology is smart contracts. A smart contract is executable code that runs on top of the blockchain to facilitate, execute and enforce an agreement between untrusted parties without the involvement of a trusted third party. In this paper, we conduct a systematic mapping study to collect all research that is relevant to smart contracts from a technical perspective. The aim of doing so is to identify current research topics and open challenges for future studies in smart contract research. We extract 24 papers from different scientific databases. The results show that about two thirds of the papers focus on identifying and tackling smart contract issues. Four key issues are identified, namely, codifying, security, privacy and performance issues. The rest of the papers focuses on smart contract applications or other smart contract related topics. Research gaps that need to be addressed in future studies are provided.


Blockchain, Smart contracts, Systematic mapping study, Survey

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[1] V. Buterin, “A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform.,” Available online at:[Accessed 19/02/2017].

[2] K. Petersen, R. Feldt, S. Mujtaba, and M. Mattsson, “Systematic mapping studies in software engineering,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE’08, pp. 68-77, BCS Learning & Development Ltd., 2008.

[3] S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system,” 2008.

[4] X. Xu, C. Pautasso, L. Zhu, V. Gramoli, A. Ponomarev, A. B. Tran, and S. Chen, “The blockchain as a software connector,” in 2016 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA), pp. 182-191, IEEE, 2016.

[5] V. Buterin, “On public and private blockchains,” Available online at: [Accessed 01/03/2017].

[6] N.Szabo, “Formalizing and securing relationships on public networks.,” Available online at:[Accessed 15/02/2017].

[7] J. Stark, “Making sense of blockchain smart contracts,” Available online at: [Ac-cessed 06/03/2017].

[8] K. Delmolino, M. Arnett, A. Kosba, A. Miller, and E. Shi, “Step by step towards creating a safe smart contract: Lessons and insights from a cryptocurrency lab,” in International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 79-94, Springer, 2016.

[9] V. Morabito, “Smart contracts and licensing,” in Business Innovation Through Blockchain, pp. 101- 124, Springer, 2017.

[10] A. Lewis, ”A gentle introduction to smart contracts,” Available online at:

[Accessed 25/02/2017].

[11] G. Wood, “Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger,” Ethereum Project Yellow Paper, 2014.

[12] K. Christidis and M. Devetsikiotis, “Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 2292-2303, 2016.

[13] W. Egbertsen, G. Hardeman, M. van den Hoven, G. van der Kolk, and A. van Rijsewijk, “Replacing paper contracts with ethereum smart contracts,” 2016.

[14] W. Banasik, S. Dziembowski, and D. Malinowski, “Efficient zero-knowledge contingent payments in cryptocurrencies without scripts,” in European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, pp. 261-280, Springer, 2016.

[15] J. Yli-Huumo, D. Ko, S. Choi, S. Park, and K. Smolander, “Where is current research on blockchain technology?|a systematic review,” PloS one, vol. 11, no. 10, p. e0163477, 2016.

[16] K. Bhargavan, A. Delignat-Lavaud, C. Fournet, A. Gollamudi, G. Gonthier, N. Kobeissi, N. Kulatova, A. Rastogi, T. Sibut-Pinote, N. Swamy, et al., “Formal verification of smart contracts: Short paper,” in Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Programming Languages and Analysis for Security, pp. 91-96, ACM, 2016.

[17] G. Bigi, A. Bracciali, G. Meacci, and E. Tuosto, “Validation of decentralised smart contracts through game theory and formal methods,” in Programming Languages with Applications to Biology and Security, pp. 142-161, Springer, 2015.

[18] C. K. Frantz and M. Nowostawski, “From institutions to code: Towards automated generation of smart contracts,” in 2016 IEEE 1st International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W), pp. 210-215, IEEE, 2016.

[19] B. Marino and A. Juels, “Setting standards for altering and undoing smart contracts,” in International Symposium on Rules and Rule Markup Languages for the Semantic Web, pp. 151-166, Springer, 2016.

[20] T. Chen, X. Li, X. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Under-optimized smart contracts devour your money,” in 2017 IEEE 24th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (SANER), pp. 442-446, IEEE, 2017.

[21] F. Idelberger, G. Governatori, R. Riveret, and G. Sartor, “Evaluation of logic-based smart contracts for blockchain systems,” in International Symposium on Rules and Rule Markup Languages for the Semantic Web,167-183, Springer, 2016.

[22] C. Natoli and V. Gramoli, “The blockchain anomaly,” in 15th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 310-317, IEEE, 2016.

[23] L. Luu, D.-H. Chu, H. Olickel, P. Saxena, and A. Hobor, “Making smart contracts smarter,” in Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS ’16, pp. 254-269, ACM, 2016.

[24] A. Juels, A. Kosba, and E. Shi, “The ring of gyges: Investigating the future of criminal smart contracts,” in Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS ’16, pp. 283-295, ACM, 2016.

[25] F. Zhang, E. Cecchetti, K. Croman, A. Juels, and E. Shi, “Town crier: An authenticated data feed for smart contracts,” in Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS ’16, pp. 270-282, ACM, 2016.

[26] A. Kosba, A. Miller, E. Shi, Z. Wen, and C. Papamanthou, “Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts,” in 2016 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP),839-858, IEEE, 2016.

[27] H. Watanabe, S. Fujimura, A. Nakadaira, Y. Miyazaki, A. Akutsu, and J. J. Kishigami, “Blockchain contract: A complete consensus using blockchain,” in 2015 IEEE 4th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE), pp. 577-578, IEEE, 2015.

[28] M. Vukolić, “Rethinking permissioned blockchains,” in Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Blockchain, Cryptocurrencies and Contracts, BCC ’17, pp. 3-7, ACM, 2017.

[29] N. Atzei, M. Bartoletti, and T. Cimoli, “A survey of attacks on ethereum smart contracts (sok),” in International Conference on Principles of Security and Trust, pp. 164-186, Springer, 2017.

[30] A. Bogner, M. Chanson, and A. Meeuw, “A decentralised sharing app running a smart contract on the ethereum blockchain,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Internet of Things, pp. 177-178, ACM, 2016.

[31] M. Al-Bassam, “Scpki: A smart contract-based pki and identity system,” in Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Blockchain, Cryptocurrencies and Contracts, BCC ’17, pp. 35-40, ACM, 2017.

[32] S. Huh, S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Managing IoT devices using blockchain platform,” in 2017 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), pp. 464-467, IEEE, 2017.

[33] P. N. Carrillo, C. I. Peña, and J. L. d. L. Rosa, “Eurakos next: a cryptocurrency based on smart contracts,” in Ebook: Artificial Intelligence Research and Development, vol. 288 of Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, pp. 221-226, 2016.

[34] H. Watanabe, S. Fujimura, A. Nakadaira, Y. Miyazaki, A. Akutsu, and J. Kishigami, “Blockchain contract: Securing a blockchain applied to smart contracts,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp. 467-468, IEEE, 2016.

[35] A. Third and J. Domingue, “Linked data indexing of distributed ledgers,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion, WWW ’17 Companion, pp. 1431-1436, 2017.

 Citation Count – 12

Environmental Monitoring And Controlling System For Mushroom Farm With Online Interface

Arjuna Marzuki and Soh Yan Ying

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia


Agriculture sensors play an important role in modern agriculture. The use of sensors in various agriculture sectors minimizes the environmental impact on crops, helps in increasing yield and saving cost of operation. Among all agriculture industries in Malaysia, the mushroom industry is a comparatively new and small. As most of the mushroom farms in Malaysia are small-scaled, their production capability is limited by inadequate environmental control system and the lack of financial resources to upgrade the systems. This paper presents an environmental monitoring and controlling system to monitor and control the environmental conditions in a mushroom farm. It enables user to monitor temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity in a mushroom farm on an android device by using Thing Speak online platform. The control algorithm is able to control devices in a mushroom farm automatically based on feedback from the sensors to maintain the environment in an optimum condition for mushroom growth. The measured percentage error of temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide and the light using the developed system was as low as 0.4%, 1.5%, 2.2% and 1.34% respectively.


Agriculture, Interface Circuit, Internet of Things, Monitoring and Control, Sensor, Wireless.

For More Details :

Volume Link:


[1] Unit Pengurusan Prestasi dan Pelaksanaan (2010) Economic Transformation Programme: A Roadmap for Malaysia (1 Malaysia). Performance Management and Delivery Unit, Jabatan Perdana Menteri.

[2] Istikoma Qurat-ul-Ain., & Dahlan A. R. A, (2015) “The Transformation of Agriculture Based Economy to an Industrial Sector through Crowd Sourcing In Malaysia”, Int. J. Comput. Sci. Inf. Technol. Res., Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.34–41.

[3] Bakar B.B., (2009) “The Malaysian Agricultural Industry in the New Millennium – Issues and Challenges,” pp. 337–356.

[4] Rosmiza M., Davies W., Aznie R. C., Jabil M., & Mazdi M, (2016) “Prospects for Increasing Commercial Mushroom Production in Malaysia: Challenges and Opportunities”, Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci., Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 406–415.

[5] Haimid M. T., Rahim H., & Dardak R. A, (2013) “Understanding the mushroom industry and its marketing strategies for fresh produce in Malaysia”, Econ. Technol. Manag. Rev., Vol. 8, pp. 27– 37.

[6] Mat Amin M. Z., & Harun A, (2015) “Competitiveness of the Mushroom Industry in Malaysia” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 18-Oct-2016].

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[8] Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Bram., & Oei, P (2005) Small-scale mushroom cultivation oyster, shiitake and wood ear mushrooms, Agrodok;40. Agromisa/CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

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.[10] Grant, J.J (2002) An investigation of the airflow in mushroom growing structures, the development of an improved, three-dimensional solution technique for fluid flow and its evaluation for the modelling of mushroom growing structures. PhD thesis, Dublin City University.

[11] Kwon H., & Kim, B. S (2004) Mushroom Grow. Handb. 1, pp. 192–196.

[12] Tisdale T. E (2004) Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotussp.) on Wood Substrates in Hawaii. MSc thesis, University of Hawai’i.

[13] Wang X., (2014) “Temperature and Humidity Monitoring System Based on GSM Module”, International Journal of Computer, Consumer and Control., Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 41–49.

[14] Rahali A., Guerbaoui M., Ed-dahhak A., El Afou Y., Tannouche A., Lachhab A., & Bouchikhi, B, (2011) “Development of a data acquisition and greenhouse control system based on GSM”, Int. J.Eng. Sci. Technol., Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 297–306.

[15] Kalinin Y. S., Velikov E. K., & Markova, V. I, (2015) “Design of Indoor Environment Monitoring System Using Arduino”, Int. J. Innov. Sci. Mod. Eng., Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 46–49, 20.

[16] Lokesh Krishna K., Madhuri J., & Anuradha K, (2016) “A ZigBee based Energy Efficient Environmental Monitoring Alerting and Controlling System”, in International Conference On Information Communication And Embedded Systems (ICICES2016).








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